Another study has been published supporting the benefits of moderate coffee intake for heart disease risk.

Researchers analyzed data from over 25000 South Korean office workers, who underwent regular health screening. The group was the same for gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, age  body fat and blood pressure readings.

The level of atherosclerosis measured on heart scans was highest in those who drank less than one cup daily and more than five cups daily.

A study from the Netherlands in 2014 analyzed 36 studies and also found that moderate coffee intake ( 3-5 cups daily)was linked to a reduction in heart disease. Other research has linked coffee to a reduction in Type 2 Diabetes, but increased blood pressure and cholesterol, both of which worsen heart disease risk.

Further work is required to explain why coffee appears to be protective, coffee contains caffeine and other compounds. It has also been linked to reduced risk of Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease, perhaps through properties reducing inflammation.

There is no recommended upper limit for caffeine consumption except for pregnant women ( advised to limit caffeine to 200mg , the equivalent of two large coffees). American authorities have suggested that up to 400mg daily appears to be safe for the average healthy adult. Higher doses can be associated with increased risk of heart palpitations and reduced absorption of some nutrients such as iron.

Examples of caffeine amounts are: 1 large instant coffee - 100mg

                                                         1 espresso - 50mg

                                                         1 can cola - 40 mg

                                                         1 large tea - 75mg Coffee shop caffeine varies considerably in amount per cup.

Currently the evidence demonstrates a simultaneous increase and reduction in risk of heart disease through drinking coffee, potentially raising cholesterol and blood pressure, while reducing the inflammatory processes associated with heart disease.

Leading an overall healthy lifestyle affects heart disease risk, while smoking a cigarette while drinking a coffee cancels out any benefits, as drinking coffee without undertaking any exercise is unlikely to offer any protection to your heart.



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